|(1)||Center for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders (CDA), Institute of Psychiatry (IPUB), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Brazil|
|(2)||Eli Lilly and Company, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil|
|(3)||R. Bento Lisboa, 40/601 – Catete, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22221-011, Brazil|
|(4)||Dept. of Psychiatry, Escola Paulista de Medicina – UNIFESP, Federal University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil|
|(5)||Medical School, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Brazil), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil|
|(6)||UNIMED, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil|
Received: 9 March 2007 Accepted: 26 February 2008 Published online: 3 April 2008
Methods Cross-sectional design. A representative sample of 6,961 elderly, randomly selected subjects, living in a community, was examined to estimate the frequency of current tobacco smoking. Tobacco use was measured by means of a household questionnaire administered by trained interviewers that inquired about current tobacco use, sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and health status. Mental health was evaluated using the Short Psychiatric Evaluation Schedule (SPES).
Results The prevalence of tobacco use was 28.9% among men, 13.6% among women and 18.8% for both sexes. Male gender (OR = 3.25), low income (OR = 1.52), years of schooling (illiterate) (OR = 1.35), non-Protestant religion (OR = 2.17) and absence of physical exercise (OR = 1.21) presented positive and independent association with tobacco use. Presence of pulmonary disease (OR = 1.93) and mental distress (OR = 1.32) and absence of cardiac disease (OR = 1.51), high blood pressure (OR = 1.51) and diabetes (OR = 1.50) were independently associated with an increased chance of current tobacco use. Increasing age (OR = 0.93) and marital status (married) (OR = 0.66) presented independent and negative association with smoking.
Conclusion Factors associated with an increased chance of tobacco smoking were: being men, illiterate, with lower income, presence of respiratory and mental disease, and absence of cardiac disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. Factors associated with a decreased risk of tobacco smoking were: aging, exercise, Protestant religion and marriage.